Introduction The main topic of the article is the Western metaphilosophy of the last hundred years or so. But that topic is broached via a sketch of some earlier Western metaphilosophies.
Editions of Leibniz 1. He was the son of a professor of moral philosophy. After university study in Leipzig and elsewhere, it would have been natural for him to go into academia.
Instead, he began a life of professional service to noblemen, primarily the dukes of Hanover Georg Ludwig became George I of England intwo years before Leibniz's death. His professional duties were various, such as official historian and legal advisor. Leibniz was one of the great polymaths of the modern world.
Moreover, a list of his significant contributions is almost as long as the list of his activities. As an engineer, he worked on calculating machines, clocks, and even mining machinery. As a librarian, he more or less invented the modern idea of cataloguing. As a mathematician, he not only produced ground-breaking work in what is now called topology, but came up with the calculus independently of though a few years later than Newton, and his notation has become the standard.
In logic, he worked on binary systems, among numerous other areas. As a physicist, he made advances in mechanics, specifically the theory of momentum.
He also made contributions to linguistics, history, aesthetics, and political theory. Leibniz's curiosity and genius ranged widely, but one of the most constant of his concerns was to bring about reconciliation by emphasizing the truths on each side of even the most seemingly contradictory positions.
Throughout his life, he hoped that his work on philosophy, as well as his work as a diplomat, would form the basis of a theology capable of reuniting the Church, which had been divided since the Reformation in the 16th Century. Similarly, he was willing to engage with, and borrow ideas from, the materialists as well as the Cartesians, the Aristotelians as well as the most modern scientists.
It is quite ironic, then, that he was a partial cause of a dispute between British and Continental mathematicians concerning who was first to develop the calculus and who might have plagiarized whoa dispute which slowed the advance of mathematics in Europe for over a century.
However, the great variety of Leibniz's work meant that he completed few of his ambitious projects. For present purposes, this means above all that Leibniz's rich and complex philosophy has to be gathered primarily from a large set of quite short manuscripts, many fragmentary and unpublished, as well has his various correspondences.
As a result, a major controversy in Leibniz scholarship is the question of where to begin. Insofar as Leibniz is a logician, it is tempting to begin with his conception of truth and, indeed, this will be the starting point of this article.
But insofar as Leibniz is a metaphysician, it is equally tempting to begin with his account of the nature of reality, in particular his notion of substance as monads.
Less common, but perhaps equally likely, starting points might reside in Leibniz the mathematician, the theologian, or the physicist. These controversies, however, already contain a lesson: Or at least Leibniz evidently thought so, since often he uses an idea from one part of his philosophy to concisely prove something in an apparently quite distant philosophical region.
However, due to this systematic nature of his philosophy, in which every idea seems to rely upon others, engaging Leibniz's ideas often proves to be challenging. Intuitively, a proposition is true when its content is adequate to the situation in the world to which it refers. For example, "the sky is gray" is true if and only if the thing out there in the world called "the sky" is actually the color called "gray" at the time the proposition is stated.
This, however, raises issues about the relationship of language to the world and what "adequacy" consists in. Leibniz claims that one can bypass problems with the intuitive notion of truth, at least for the moment.
Truth, according to Leibniz, is simply a proposition in which the predicate is contained in the subject.check another discourse on metaphysics and other essays hackett classics.
GO TO THE TECHNICAL WRITING FOR AN EXPANDED TYPE OF THIS DISCOURSE ON METAPHYSICS AND OTHER ESSAYS HACKETT CLASSICS, ALONG WITH A CORRECTLY. Book Description Hackett Publishing Co, Inc, United States, Paperback.
Condition: New. Language: English. Brand new Book. Discourse on Metaphysics and Other Essays contains complete translations of the two essays that constitute the best introductions to Leibniz's complex thought: Discourse on Metaphysics of and Monadology of Discourse on Metaphysics and Other Essays contains complete translations of the two essays that constitute the best introductions to Leibniz’s complex thought: Discourse on Metaphysics of and Monadology of /5(8).
Discourse on Metaphysics and Other Essays contains complete translations of the two essays that constitute the best introductions to Leibniz’s complex thought: Discourse on Metaphysics of and Monadology of These are supplemented with two essays of special interest to the student of modern philosophy, On the Ultimate Origination of Things of and the Preface to his New Essays.
Discourse on Metaphysics and Other Essays contains complete translations of the two essays that constitute the best introductions to Leibniz’s complex thought: “Discourse on Metaphysics” of and “Monadology” of These are supplemented with two essays of special interest to the student of modern philosophy, “On the Ultimate.
Immanuel Kant () Kant's most original contribution to philosophy is his "Copernican Revolution," that, as he puts it, it is the representation that makes the object possible rather than the object that makes the representation possible [§14, A92/B, note].This introduced the human mind as an active originator of experience rather than just a passive recipient of perception.